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Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

What are STDs?
Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, are infections you can get by having sex with someone who has one of these diseases. STDs can cause problems for the rest of your life.

Have I been exposed to an STD?
If you have sex, just once, with someone who has an STD, you can catch it, whether the sex is genital, oral, or anal. Some STDs are even transmitted through kissing or skin-to-skin contact. You often will not be able to tell if your sex partner has an STD. Sometimes, there are no signs that you can see. If you find out you have an STD, tell the person or persons with whom you've had sex. Anyone who has had sex with a person with an STD needs to get treatment. Remember, even if you've been treated or cured, you can get the same STD again, or a different one, if you have sex with a person who has an STD.

What are the symptoms of STDs?
The chart below lists the most common STDs, and there are many more. If you have these symptoms, seek treatment immediately! Call us to find out where to go for treatment. Remember, your phone call to us is confidential.

STD
SYMPTOMS AND OTHER VITAL INFORMATION
HIV / AIDS

Human
Immunodeficiency
Virus

Acquired
Immune Deficiency
Syndrome
Viral - No Cure
Signs and Symptoms:
rapid weight loss; dry cough; recurring fever or profuse night sweats; profound and unexplained fatigue; swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck; diarrhea that lasts for more than a week; white spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat; pneumonia; red, brown, pink, or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose, or eyelids; memory loss; depression and other neurological disorders
Modes of Transmission:
Vaginal, anal and oral contact; body fluids; and from mother to child in breast milk
Complications:
Opportunistic infection (i.e. cancer, pneumonia), brain damage, death
Chlamydia
Bacterial - curable with antibiotics
Signs and Symptoms:
80% of women and 40% of men have no symptoms.
Women may have vaginal discharge and/or pelvic pain. When the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum.
Men's symptoms are more apparent: burning during urination, discharge from penis, burning and itching around the opening of the penis, swelling in the testicles
Modes of Transmission:
Mother to baby during vaginal delivery; vaginal, anal and oral sexual contact
Complications:
If untreated, 20-40% of females will develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID); may cause sterility
Gonorrhea
Bacterial - curable with antibiotics; however, drug-resistant strains of gonorrhea are increasing in many areas of the world, including the United States, and successful treatment of gonorrhea is becoming more difficult. Because many people with gonorrhea also have chlamydia, antibiotics for both infections are usually given together. Persons with gonorrhea should be tested for other STDs.
Signs and Symptoms:
Women: often no symptoms; often mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection; bloody urine/discharge
Men: often no symptoms; painful urination; swollen genitals; rashes on arms and legs; discharge (yellowish white)
Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women may include discharge, anal itching, soreness, bleeding, or painful bowel movements. Rectal infection also may cause no symptoms. Infections in the throat may cause a sore throat but usually causes no symptoms.
Modes of Transmission:
Mother to baby during vaginal delivery; vaginal, anal and oral contact
Complications:
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID); may cause sterility and arthritis
HPV

Human
Papilloma
Virus

"Genital Warts"
Viral - more than 100 different strains or types
No "cure" for HPV infection, although in most women the infection goes away on its own

More than 30 of these viruses are sexually transmitted, and they can infect the genital area of men and women including the skin of the penis, vulva (area outside the vagina), or anus, and the linings of the vagina, cervix, or rectum. Most people who become infected with HPV will not have any symptoms and will clear the infection on their own.
Signs and Symptoms:
Pink, gray, or flesh-colored warts (painless), abnormal pap smear
Modes of Transmission:
Skin-to-skin contact
Complications:
• Highly contagious - looks like cauliflower
• Can take up to 18 months to remove all warts; patient under doctors care for life
• There are no tests to detect HPV infection in men
• Warts must be cut, frozen or burned with acid cream
• All new cervical cancer is caused by HPV
Alarming Statistics:
• The most common STI - viral or bacterial
• Over 65% of sexually active women younger than 35 years of age are exposed
• 40-45% of college females test positive
• More women die of cervical cancer each year than die of AIDS
Syphilis
Bacterial - curable in the early stages
Signs and Symptoms:
Stage 1: Sores can appear on mouth, genitals, and rectum (small, firm and painless); appear on spot where syphilis entered body; last 3-6 weeks and heal on their own
Stage 2: Sores heal; white patches on tongue; low-grade fever/flu-like symptoms (swollen lymph glands, headaches, muscle aches, tiredness); hair loss; will clear up without treatment; rash on palms of hands and/or soles of feet
Stage 3: Begins when secondary symptoms heal; damage to organ systems and ultimately death; no symptoms, just positive blood/fluid tests
Modes of Transmission:
Mother to baby during vaginal delivery; vaginal, anal and oral contact, as well as through kissing; direct contact with a syphilis sore.
Complications:
There is an estimated 2- to 5-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV infection when syphilis is present.
Trichomonas
Bacterial parasite - curable with antibiotics
Signs and Symptoms:
Women: Thin, foul-smelling watery or frothy green vaginal discharge; vaginal irritation, redness; pain during sex; burning upon urination/frequent urination; lower abdominal discomfort
Men: Discharge from the urethra; urge to urinate; burning sensation with urination or ejaculation
Modes of Transmission:
Vaginal, anal and oral contact
Complications:
The genital inflammation caused by trichomoniasis can increase a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection if she is exposed to the virus. Having trichomoniasis may increase the chance that an HIV-infected woman passes HIV to her sex partner(s).
Alarming Statistics:
• Causes more new infections every year than any other STI, besides HPV
• One of the most common STIs, mainly affecting 16-35 year old women
Herpes
Viral - No Cure
Two Types:
HSV-Type 1: commonly causes fever blisters on the mouth or face
HSV-Type 2: typically affects the genitalia
Both viral types can cause either genital infection or oral infection
Transmitted with or without the presence of sores or other symptoms
Signs and Symptoms:
Painful skin lesions (blisters, ulcers, fissures); genital discharge; vulvar irritation; swollen lymph glands; malaise; aches
Modes of Transmission:
Direct contact: kissing, sexual (vaginal, anal and oral contact) or other skin-to-skin contact
Complications:
Herpes can make people more susceptible to HIV infection, and it can make HIV-infected individuals more infectious.
Viral Hepatitis
Viral - vaccinations are only useful to prevent infection. Once a person is already positive for Heptitis B, the vaccine will not cure it.
Signs and Symptoms:
Jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, grey-colored bowel movements, joint pain
Modes of Transmission:
Mother to baby during vaginal delivery; infected needles or "works"; vaginal, anal and oral contact; blood or body fluids
Complications:
• Some people who become infected with HBV develop chronic (lifelong) infection.
• Chronic infection increases the risk for cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), liver cancer, and liver failure. About 15%-25% of people with chronic HBV infection might die prematurely from liver cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Sources: Center for Disease Control and Prevention, March of Dimes, and LifeChoices Medical Clinic Resource Center.


FOR IMMEDIATE HELP: Go to pregnancydecisionline.org or call 877-791-5475 for Pregnancy Decision Coaching